The invention relates to an earthquake-resistant elastic component for a building and belongs to the architectural field. The elastic component is used in the main building of a building for relieving the shaking force applied to the building and preventing the loosened floor slab or the wall body from falling. The elastic component comprises an elastic plate frame and an elastic shock absorption strut which are attached under a shed board or in a wall body. The elastic plate frame is composed of a frame formed by crisscrossed steel plates and helical springs distributed in the frame. The elastic shock absorption strut is composed of a box type end head, a helical supporting spring connected with the both ends of the box type end head, a supporting rod penetrating through the spring and extending into the box type end head, and a pressure spring arranged between the end part of the supporting rod and the box wall. The elastic component has the advantage that the shock transferred to the building of the ground can be buffered through the shock absorption strut, so that the damage to the building can be avoided or reduced. The kinetic energy of the falling shed board or the collapsed wall body can be absorbed by the elastic plate frame attached under the shed board or on the wall body during the process of elastic deformation, the phenomenon that the shed board is damaged or the wall body falls on the ground can be prevented, and the indoor casualties and the property damage can be avoided.